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FEEDBACK INSTRUCTIONS: The examiner wants the completed work to update the following task: (1) critically evaluate theories and approaches in cross-cultural mental health care (2) analysis and synthesize the management of mental health problems across different societies- NOTE(COMPARE ONLY TWO COUNTRIES CROSS CULTURE DIFFERENCES BUT NOT MORE THAN TWO COUNTRIES. (3 Demonstrate comprehensive understanding and application of underpinning concepts to provide care that addresses contemporary issues in mental health care (4) demonstrate an innovative approach to mental health care delivery through the sythesis of information and application to practice (5)coOrder ID: 1324514 04 Dec 2018 $470.85 Cancelled by system Prof Solphie nsider and critically evaluate mental health approaches that can have an impact of stigmatization of mental illness via the media kindly edit attached work work and put more critics rather than desсrіption
An abstract is a paragraph (150-300 words) that summarizes the main aspects of the paper in a prescribed sequence that includes 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
Mental Health 1
Impact of Culture on Mental Health Approaches
Mental health problems are a pressing issue in public health in America and across the world. Approximately 20% of Americans experience a form of mental illness in any given years. This staggering number is attributed upon the fact that there are many various mental illnesses that can affect the psychological wellbeing of an individual. Even when narrowed down to serious mental conditions, at least 1 in 25 or 4% of Americans are affected in every calendar year. This means that the issue of mental health is a widespread phenomenon that needs to be constantly addressed across all demographics. Mental health is as much more a function of the environmental factors in one’s life than it is a function of genetics. Therefore, it does not discriminate against any race, gender, ethnicity or any other demographic factors that are normally used to subdivide the population.
However, the response to mental health issues is not uniform across all communities and cultures. Each unique community reacts differently to the occurrence of mental health illnesses within their midst. The differences in the reactions are informed by the biases of the community, their varied histories with professional healthcare services, the unique issues surrounding these communities and the religious beliefs that are unique to the said groups (Sentell, Shumway and Snowden, pg. 291, 2007). Due to the differences in beliefs about mental health issues, various communities and culture approach mental illnesses differently as well. The beliefs influence the healthcare treatment accorded to individuals who are diagnosed with such conditions. Therefore, in order to provide adequate and appropriate mental healthcare services to any community, it is important for the caregivers to understand the culture and its subsequent impact on beliefs about mental health.
One of the aspects of culture that determine how a community interacts with mental illnesses is the cause of the diseases. The notions about what causes mental illnesses can vary wildly from rational reasons such as emotional distress to irrational beliefs of witchcraft and curses depending on the community in question. The causality may be blamed on the individual, the society or the supernatural depending on the level of education and religiosity of the culture in question. Most of the research carried out in this area has focused on the cultural variations among different ethnicities (Office of the Surgeon General, pg. 2, 2001). A study carried out among African Americans, Latinos and Asian Americans found that there were significant variations among these three groups in their shared beliefs about causes of mental health issues.
African Americans who participated in the study demonstrated a tendency to associate mental health issues with stress and loss. This may be the loss of a job, a loved one or valued property that invited stability into one’s life. In this particular demographic stress over money, loss of family and friends and general worry about life were blamed more often compared to the polled answers of non-Latino Whites. Compared to non-Latino Whites, a greater proportion of Asian Americans believed that family issues, cultural differences and medical illnesses were to blame for mental health issues (Office of the Surgeon General, pg. 5, 2001). Latinos pointed out the stress of moving to a new place as a cause in addition to family issues and loss of family and friends. Aside from the loss of family and friends which is consistent among all the groups, it is clear that the unique attributes and history of each culture influences their perceptions of the cause of mental health issues. African Americans are disadvantaged due to subtle racial discrimination which denies them economic opportunities making financial issues a major stressor. Asian Americans have trouble integrating in to the American society which makes cultural differences a major stressor. Latinos are often immigrants or direct descendants of immigrants from Latin America and Mexico which makes the issues of moving from one place to another a major stressor for them.
The second aspect of culture that influences the response to mental health issues is how people cope when such issues occur. The coping mechanisms to mental illnesses in the family often vary from one culture to the next. In Asian American culture, reticence and avoidance is common. This is because there is a cultural belief that not spending too much time on negative thoughts will make the situation better. They prefer to suppress their emotions and distress rather than express them outwardly and seek help. In the case of mental health issues, this approach can be detrimental since it piles on to the existing mental pressures. On the other hand, African Americans have an inclination to take a proactive approach whereby they confront the issues at hand but prefer to deal with their distress without help from professionals (Office of the Surgeon General, pg. 6, 2001). They are also more likely to rely on spirituality and religion to address their mental health issues. This can also be detrimental where professional help and treatment is needed.
In Thailand, the majority of the country practices Buddhism as a religion. The teachings of Buddhism exalt values such as self-restraint, emotional control and social inhibition. Consequently, Thai people are less likely to confront their stress factors head on since their religion places a premium on having one’s thoughts under control. One study comparing Thai and American children revealed that the former was twice as likely to use covert coping mechanisms when upset compared to the latter who used overt response mechanisms when frustrated or angered (Office of the Surgeon General, pg. 5, 2001). This means that American children are twice as likely as Thai children to scream, kick and shout among other outward expressions of emotion when upset by something. On the other hand, Thai children prefer silence and not talking back when confronted with a stressful situation. This culture of suppression and covert coping that is taught to children likely stays with them even later into their adult lives.
There are several studies that have been conducted examining the treatment seeking habits of various populations in America. A majority of this research has demonstrated that minority communities are less likely to seek professional help for their conditions compared to the Caucasian community (Gopalkrishnan and Babacan, pg. 7, 2015). This trend cuts across both ethnic and racial minorities. The concept of seeking treatment in this case refers to the duration and steps taken before getting to a health professional. Minorities also take generally longer before they recognize that they have a problem that needs to be addressed whether in themselves or in the case of a family member with mental health issues. According to this research, there is a high probability that these minorities will delay seeking help even after recognizing that there is a problem until the symptoms are too severe to ignore. Even at this point, minorities are least likely to contact a professional when compared to Caucasians who are the majority of the population. Rather, minorities have a preference for alternative sources of help that are not trained mental health professionals. For instance, they may turn to their peers, their spiritual and religious leaders or even traditional healers as the first line of defense.
The breakdown of the various ethnic and racial minorities and their preferences is as follows. American Indians are most likely to turn to traditional healers and medicine compared to all other ethnic groups (Jimenez, et.al pg.535, 2012)). Luckily for this demographic, the traditional healers often have programs that run in collaboration with formal mental health professionals who supplement their traditional medicine. However, the fact that this group prefers traditional healers over formal professionals is telling of their mistrust of the public health system. When African Americans seek professional help, they show a preference for African American therapists. This preference is born of the belief that therapists from their ethnicities are more likely to understand their struggles and stressors more than White or Asian…