MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)  The demand for an asset rises if ________ falls. 1)

A)  risk relative to other assets              B) wealth C) expected return relative to other assets D) liquidity relative to other assets

2)  Banks’ attempts to solve adverse selection and moral hazard problems help explain loan 2) management principles such as A) credit rationing.

B)   collateral and compensating balances.

C)   screening and monitoring of loan applicants.

D)  all of the above.

E)   only A and B of the above.

3)  When a lender refuses to make a loan, although borrowers are willing to pay the stated interest rate             3) or even a higher rate, it is said to engage in ________.

A)  credit rationing B) constrained lending C) strategic refusal D) collusive behavior

4)  If a bank has more rate- sensitive liabilities than rate- sensitive assets, then a(n) ________ in interest 4) rates will ________ bank profits.

A)  increase; increase               B) increase; reduce

C) decline; not affect                                                            D) decline; reduce

First National Bank

     Assets                  Liabilities
Rate-sensitive Fixed-rate $20 million         $50 million

$80 million         $40 million

Table 23.1

5)  Referring to Table 23.1, if interest rates rise by 5 percentage points, then bank profits (measured     5) using gap analysis) will

A)  increase by $1.5 million.  B) decline by $0.5 million.

C) decline by $2.5 million.                                                 D) decline by $1.5 million.

First National Bank

     Assets                  Liabilities
Rate-sensitive Fixed-rate $40 million         $50 million

$60 million         $40 million

Table 23.2

6) Refer to Table 23.2. Assuming that the average duration of the bank’s assets is four years, while the average duration of its liabilities is three years, a rise in interest rates from 5 percent to 10 percent will cause the net worth of First National to ________ by ________ of the total original asset value.

A) decline; 6.2%                   B) increase; 5%                    C) decline; 5%                      D) decline; 1.3%


7)  Measuring the sensitivity of bank profits to changes in interest rates by multiplying the gap for      7) several maturity subintervals by the change in the interest rate is called A) basic gap analysis.

B)   the maturity bucket approach to gap analysis.

C)   the segmented maturity approach to interest- exposure analysis.

D)  the segmented maturity approach to gap analysis.

E)   none of the above.

8)  If a decline in interest rates causes the market value of a bank’s net worth to rise, then the bank       8) must have a ________.

A) positive duration gap                                                     B) positive gap

C) negative duration gap                                                    D) negative gap

B)   does not measure the sensitivity of net worth to interest rate changes.

C)   does not measure the sensitivity of income to interest rate changes.

D)  is calculated assuming that the yield curve is flat.

E)   is calculated assuming that the yield curve does not change.

10)  One problem with basic gap analysis is that it

A)  is calculated assuming interest rates on all maturities are equal.

B)   does not measure the sensitivity of income to interest rate changes.

C)   is calculated assuming interest rates on all maturities change by equal amounts.

D)  applies only to financial institutions.

E)   measures the sensitivity of net worth to interest rate changes.

11)  A bank manager concerned about interest income who expects interest rates to fall and who knows              11) the bank currently has a positive gap should ________ rate- sensitive assets and ________ rate- sensitive liabilities.

A)  decrease; decrease              B) decrease; increase

C) increase; increase                                                            D) increase; decrease

12)  The number of contracts outstanding in a particular financial future is the ________.          12)

A)  open interest        B) outstanding balance

C) index level                                                                         D) demand coefficient

13) The advantage of forward contracts over futures contracts is that forward contracts

A) have lower default risk.                                                 B) are standardized.

C) are more liquid.                                                                D) are none of the above.


14)  When a financial institution hedges the interest- rate risk for a specific asset, the hedge is called a 14) ________.

A)  macro hedge     B) futures hedge C) micro hedge   D) cross hedge

15)  An increase in the volatility of the underlying asset, all other things held constant, will ________ the 15) option premium.

A)  not affect             B) increase C) decrease D) Not enough information is given.

16)  A financial contract that obligates one party to exchange a set of payments it owns for another set of             16) payments owned by another party is called a ________.

A)  cross put option               B) swap

C) cross call option                                                               D) cross hedge

17)  If Second National Bank has more rate- sensitive assets than rate- sensitive liabilities, it can reduce                17) interest- rate risk with a swap which requires Second National to A) receive a fixed rate while paying a floating rate.

B)   both receive and pay a floating rate.

C)   both receive and pay a fixed rate.

D)  pay a fixed rate while receiving a floating rate.

18)  The use of financial derivatives by financial institutions to hedge can decrease risk. However, they 18) can also increase risk. Which of the following examples illustrates this?

A)  Some institutions such huge amounts of derivatives that the amounts exceed capital.

B)   Financial derivatives allow financial institutions to increase their leverage.

C)   All of the above are valid examples.

D)  None of the above are valid examples.

19)  Factors that cause the demand curve for bonds to shift to the left include   19)

A)  an increase in the liquidity of stocks.

B)   an increase in the inflation rate.

C)   a decrease in the volatility of stock prices.

D)  all of the above.

E)   none of the above.

20)  According to the expectations theory of the term structure,              20)

A)  buyers of bonds prefer short- term to long- term bonds.

B)   interest rates on bonds of different maturities move together over time.

C)   the interest rate on long- term bonds will exceed the average of expected future short- term interest rates.

D)  all of the above.


only A and B of the above.

21) If bad credit risks are the ones who most actively seek loans and, therefore, receive them from financial intermediaries, then financial intermediaries face the problem of

A) adverse selection.                                                             B) costly state verification.

C) free- riding.                                                                       D) moral hazard.


22)  The problem created by asymmetric information before the transaction occurs is called ________,             22) while the problem created after the transaction occurs is called ________.

A)  free- riding; costly state verification           B) adverse selection; moral hazard

C) moral hazard; adverse selection                                 D) costly state verification; free- riding

23)  The process of deleveraging refers to

A)  a reduction in debt owed by banks.

B)   cutbacks in lending by financial institutions.

C)   both A and B.

D)  none of the above.

24)  When we refer to the shadow banking system, what are we talking about?           24)

A)  the subsidiaries of depository institutions

B)   the “underground” banking system used for illegal activities

C)   hedge funds, investment banks, and other nonbank financial firms that supply liquidity

D)  none of the above

25)  Federal Reserve independence is thought to

A)  introduce longer- run considerations to monetary policymaking.

B)   introduce a short- term bias to monetary policymaking.

C)   lead to better fiscal and monetary policy coordination.

D)  do both A and B of the above.

26)  The theory of bureaucratic behavior suggests that the objective of a bureaucracy is to maximize 26) A) its own welfare.

B)   the public’s welfare.

C)   profits.

D)  conflict between the executive and legislative branches of government.

27)  Instrument independence means the central bank is free from  27)

A)  political pressure…

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